yes, you can. mac os doesn't rely on extensions to tell it what's going on, it uses creator/file type aliens, which live inside each file and tell your mac what to open it with.
i hate the way you can, say, rename an .exe file to .pdf in Windoze and then, lo and behold... it's an Acrobat file, complete with icon! duuuuh.
i'm led to believe OS X uses a combination of both though. hmm.