The cable has nothing to do with faster transfers. USB is limited to 12Mbps by design. The chips that send and receive the data on either end of the transmission set this rate.
Although if you by a cheap, unsheilded cable you could get interference which could cause errors and poor transmissions. The longer the USB cable (and the longest before a hub is 5 meters) the larger gauge wire and sheild should be used to maintain signal integrity.